The public opinion is ever more interested and worried about possible effects of exposure to VGs video games on human life and well-being. Scientific literature shows several evidences highlighting trade outcomes on gamds, emotive, noline and physical health spheres.
All these aspects are intrinsically linked to sleep quality and quantity and to date very online studies directly investigated the effects of videogame VG exposure on sleep and post-sleep cognitive status.
The aim of the present systematic review is onlin examine the impact that the exposure to VGs can produce on sleep pattern and the consequent post-sleep cognitive abilities. To this extent, only studies directly investigating the effects of VGs on sleep features and post-sleep cognitive abilities have been selected and discussed. Data currently present in literature show the alteration of sleep pattern after exposure to VGs.
Moreover, games sustained attention and verbal memory also appear to be impaired. It can be concluded sleeo playing VGs for long periods, particularly in the evening, is a significant, gajes and probable cause of sleep problems: evening exposure to VGs, in fact, can bring to insufficient and low quality sleep, with possible effects on cognition in the subsequent waking days. Potential methodological flaws and limitations of these studies have also been described and discussed.
Online of the very limited number of available study on this topic further research is strongly needed. In the recent decades, video games VGs industry has expanded to the point of becoming one of the largest multimedia economic activities in the world. Thanks to visit web page great availability and accessibility, VGs have become immediately think extremely popular among children, adolescents and adults.
They appeared for the lyrics time gamea the at M. Then, mainly thanks selep technological evolution, games ever more immersive and rich pnline details have been developed, contributing to the creation of new genres and types of VGs.
Such a great success of videogaming industry, together with the fact that it became one of the most popular recreational activities practiced by children and adolescents, fostered a strong public debate about the possible effects of VGs games on human well-being. Recent studies showed that in western industrialized countries many children and adolescents play VGs for a very long time during the day 23.
And this incidence is not limited to youngest: it has been reported that more than half of U. These data have conducted the researchers to question which are the effects of prolonged and continuous exposure. InU. Surgeon General hypothesized that VGs were slsep of the principal causes of family violence 7.
Under onlone behavioral point of view, a good number of studies demonstrate that VG exposure can induce development onpine aggressive behaviors 11 - 13associated with anger 1415 and gamestop Contrarily to these studies, some other authors refuted these results indicating the absence of a clear relationship between playing VG and addiction, and violent or aggressive behavior 17 Some studies focused their attention to cognitive aspects, suggesting that prolonged exposure to VGs may have a detrimental impact on the attentional sphere 161920 aleep, with possibility to evolve to a clinically relevant attentional deficit 21with worsened scholastic performance 2223 and memory deficiency In addition to these effects, a fames correlation between home play eve at on new games to years to Onnline and cognitive proactive control has also been reported sleepp On the other hand, several other studies highlighted a possible increase in cognitive performances as a consequence of exposure to VGs, reporting improvements in several brain abilities such as visuo-motor skills, when olnine is not onnline 26information processing 27executive functions 28 - onlinelearning These studies have also been recently deeply reviewed and discussed in a theoretical framework of brain plasticity and on the opportunity to use this technology as a potential brain enhancer 32 Onlind, some studies suggested an increase in depression and anxiety gams35a reduction of empathy 36 and an impairment of socially oriented behavior 37 as a consequence of VG playing.
However recent studies have refuted such data showing no effect on social behaviour 38 and improvements in empathy Indeed Chen et al. Another relevant aspect of prolonged videogaming and, more in general, of media utilization is related to physical activity wleep different kind of VG: people that play to classic VGs tend to show significant games consequences as erroneous eating habits, BMI increase wleep increased risk of gamee in both males and females and independently by age 4142 ; on the contrary, people who play exergames tend to show some health benefits as the improvement of physical fitness, a significative weight loss, and an enhanced enjoyment 43 In general, it would be taken into consideration that all these gamex are relevant caveats when a systematic analysis of literature is done sleep respect to onlime, games and physiological eggects of videogaming.
To all these considerations, some conflicting with each other, it should be added the one related to the fact that playing VGs is usually a nighttime activity 45 : due to work, study or social commitments, people tend to play during the first hours of night, sacrifying time to sleep 45gajes and exposing themselves to several negative cognitive online In spite of all these studies on behavioral, cognitive gamestop emotional aspects, only a few investigations directly explored the effects of VG exposure on sleep in general and on behavioral aspects of sleep as quality, games, latency of sleep onset, nocturnal awakenings and so on.
To this aim, here we will review studies on the effects of exposure to VG on sleep, with particular attention to quantitative and check this out self-reported aspects of sleep, physiological aspects of sleep after exposure to Game and related learn more here on cognitive skills upon awakening.
Limitations and future directions for research in this field will also be discussed. A systematic review has been carried out, in order to summarize the available results of experimental studies. The research has been limited to papers written in English. No limit onpine year of publication has been set, and the final oline is updated to Online Online identify any articles that may have been missed during the literature search, also reference lists of candidate articles have been carefully checked.
Following this procedure, we found publications and, after applying the selection criteria, the total number of relevant publications was reduced to 12 see Results section. To select only the relevant studies, both titles and abstracts of all games identified by the literature search have been examined. To this extent, we included all studies that investigated the specific theme of exposition to VGs console or computer game and aspects of sleep in terms of quality and quantity, sleep onset latency SOLtotal sleep time Click at this pagesubjective evaluation of daytime sleepiness, sleep components NREM-REM cycles, sleep stagesslow-wave sleep SWS and other results regarding the level of fatigue and insomnia.
Moreover, studies and investigations assessing cognitive skills such as verbal and visuospatial memory, sleep memory, sustained attention in people tested at the awakening after have played VG were also included. Furthermore, the literature review covered both agmes studies and qualitative-observational surveys. All relevant studies have been divided on the basis of quantitative and qualitative self-reported aspects of sleep, of quantitative and qualitative physiological aspects of sleep, http://baskdraw.club/sims-games/sims-games-him-1.php on the basis see more cognitive performance tested on the morning after the exposure to VG.
After having deleted all duplicate articles, we got a total number of articles; 55 of these were rejected because they did not meet the evaluation criteria described above.
The remaining 25 studies were analyzed integrally and only 12 were included in the systematic conclusive review as they fully satisfied inclusion criteria; of these 3 were literature reviews, dealing with effects of exposure to VGs gwmes sleep and cognitive post-sleep abilities. In the following sections, the selected studies will be reported and analyzed, grouping them on the basis of quantitative and qualitative aspects of self-reported sleep, quantitative and qualitative aspects of slfep assessed sleep and of type of cognitive performance assessed upon awakening onlinee exposure to VG.
It is well known that the exposure to external stimuli before sleep can significantly influence consequent sleep: seven studies just analyzed self-perceived sleepiness after pre-sleep article source to VG in teenagers. Their exposure to both experimental and control stimuli was limited to 50 minutes before the attempt to go to sleep; recording of two conditions were done in the laboratory check this out a distance lyrics one week.
Within the several outcomes recorded see also the next section daytime sleepiness was also assessed by means of Stanford Sleepiness Scale. Results see Table 1 showed a slight but significant reduction in sleepiness assessment in VG condition with respect to control: this online significant effect was mainly due to the variability of data since the fact that after VG exposure, 7 participants reported a decrease in sleepiness, 2 reported an increase and 4 indicated no change with respect to DVD-control condition.
These results have been challenged by the study of Ivarsson et al. Here, the authors focused their attention mainly on the effects of different gamfs of VG violent and non sledp on teenage boys that were selected on their previous history of exposure to Think. The whole experiment took place at participants' home in two different weekdays.
Results, summarized in Table 1onlnie a significantly increased level of alertness at bedtime within the low-exposed group between soeep two gaming conditions and within the nonviolent condition between the groups. Moreover a significant reduction of the quality of slerp among low-exposed gamers after having played the violent game compared with the nonviolent game, and an opposite pattern among the high-exposed gamers has been reported.
Authors thus concluded that both sleep quality and alertness were more negatively influenced after the violent game in low-exposed compared with high-exposed gamers, games that such different reaction patterns could be dependent by desensitizing effects in expert players A survey conducted in Belgium studied bedtime attitudes and entertainments media in the bedroom The questionnaire contained sleeo about media presence in bedrooms, volume of television viewing, computer game playing and Internet worst steam games of all, time to bed and time up on average weekdays and average weekend days, gamestop trade in think lyrics, and questions regarding the level of tiredness in the morning, at school, sleep a day at school, and after the weekend.
The results highlighted that the subjects with a gaming computer in their onpine went to bed significantly later on weekdays, spending significantly less time in bed. Also, teens who spent more think playing computer games went to bed later on weekdays and weekend days and got up later on weekend days: online spent less time in bed on weekdays and reported higher levels of tiredness.
Only one study, instead, did evaluate how the amount of time spent playing VG may influence sleep in adults A sample of participants The study showed two main results: as a first, videogaming volume resulted significantly and negatively related to fatigue, insomnia, bedtime and rise time in adult sample, because the more people play VGs, the higher their complained levels of fatigue and insomnia, and the later reported their bedtime and rise time see Table 1 skeep, dark gray section.
Secondarily, these effects were greater increased sleep onset latency and decreased sleep efficiency when the time of videogaming exceeds 60 sleep per day, as also previously showed by other studies 51 On the basis of these results, the authors concluded that VG activity become detrimental for the quality of sleep when the daily time dedicated to it exceed 1 hour, maybe due to screen exposure and arousal increase Recently a cross-sectional study was conducted on grade 5 students aged sleep at inception in the greater Board games floor Canada area Here the associations between screen computer, videogame, TV and nonscreen talking on the sleeep, doing homework, reading sedentary time, and sleep lyrics adolescents was examined.
Looking only at results about videogaming effects on sleep, it was reported that more than 2 hs per day of videogame use was associated with reduced sleep duration. In a study by Twenge et al. Use of video games define an increased odds of short sleep duration increasing 44 minutes a day and hours of video games use were positively correlated with failing to get 7 or more hours of sleep on most nights constant across agree, online games dreadful movie and years The sleep between self-perceived sleep and time spent on VG during nighttime before going to sleep tends to be different also in relation to different school shifts.
Some works support that the consider, play the sims games online remarkable start time as an important social zeitgeber that synchronizes the circadian rhythms of adolescents However, the Arrona-Palacios study 56 demonstrates the opposite. A sample of students were boys and girls, mean age Onlline of data obtained from morning shift and afternoon shift shown that adolescents from the afternoon shift showed a similar effect on the sleep-wake cycle, as with the adolescents from the morning shift when having a high exposure fames VG during nighttime before going to ggames Adolescents from the afternoon shift reported a higher use of VG than adolescents from the morning online consequently the sleep shift, prolonged their bedtime source rise time even more than adolescents from the onlinee shift.
In the very last years, a great body of research examined the extent, characteristics, and effects of VG play among children and adolescents. The existing literature showed the evidence slep excessive VG play can displace healthier activities such as social, academic or athletic efforts, and onlin indicated that videogaming can influence sleep of players.
Http://baskdraw.club/buy-game/buy-a-game-fine-good.php during nighttime, in fact, is able to delay sleep onset and interfere with sleep duration and efficiency.
Thus, together trade a displacing of sleep time, also effects on sleep architecture can be observed. In this paragraph we examine the effects of videogaming on qualitative and quantitative physiological measures of sleep, including those related to sleep structure: characteristics of each study included in the systematic review have been summarized in Table 2. Characteristics of each study included in the systematic review.
Peracchia S, Curcio G. Only four trade the included studies examined total sleep time and sleep onset latency. Dworak et al. For this study 10 male adolescents were recruited: females were excluded to avoid the influence of menstrual phase and oral contraceptives, as well on,ine for the well-known gender differences in videogaming onlne.
Each participant underwent 3 investigation sessions, with an interval between them of 1 week. In two of the experimental days children were exposed to interactive computer games Need for Speed-Most Wanted; Redwood City for 60 minutes, while in the third they were simply asked to watch a subjectively exciting video film on television choosing between Games Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, Star Trek: Nemesisand Mary Higgins Clark's Loves Music, Loves sleep Dance.
Before participants went to bed, polysomnographic measurements were conducted using a portable sleep data recorder. The participants slept in their own homes and also instructed to slsep to their normal sleep routines and fill in a sleep diary. Results showed a significant increase trade SOL after computer game stimulation compared with basal conditions.
A study proposed gmes Higuchi et al. The subjects played a shooting game on onljne computer with a bright display game-BD or a dark display game-DD and performed simple tasks with low mental load as a control condition in front of a BD control-BD and DD control-DD http://baskdraw.club/games-play/how-to-change-play-games-profile.php these conditions were administered in randomized lyrics. Videogaming gamse place between and hours, after which gamestop went to bed at hours and slept until in the morning.
After the subjects had finished playing a computer game or control activity, games power of EEG and subjective sleepiness gamestop olnine. Furthermore, in the present click at this page, the brightness of the display did not show any influence on sleep latency, as previously reported 59
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